Here is a quick diagram of what that looks like:
So why the change in architecture? Since the stability, reliability and performance of these device drivers are importantly critical to ESX(i) second to the VMkernel itself. There is actually a variety of challenges with this architecture in addition to the overhead that is introduced with the translation layer. The vmklinux module must be tied to a specific Linux kernel version and the continued maintenance of vmklinux to provide backwards compatibility across both new and old drivers is quite challenging. From a functionality perspective, we are also limited by the capabilities of the Linux drivers as they are not built specifically for the VMkernel and can not support features such as hot-plug/ To solve this problem, VMware developed a new Native Device Driver model interface that allows a driver to speak directly to the VMkernel and removing the need for the “legacy” vmklinux interface.
More efficient and flexible device driver model compared to vmklinux
Standardized information for debugging/troubleshooting
Improved performance as we no longer have a translation layer
Support for new capabilities such as PCIe hot-plug
This new architecture was developed with backwards compatibility in mind as we all know it is not possible for our entire hardware ecosystem to port their current drivers in one release. To that extent, ESXi 5.5 can run a hybrid of both “legacy” vmklinux drivers as well as the new Native Device Driver. Going forward, VMware will be primarily investing in the Native Device Driver architecture and encourage new device drivers to be developed using the new architecture. VMware also provides an NDDK (Native Driver Development Kit) to our ecosystem partners as well as a sample Native Device Driver which some of you may have seen in the release of vSphere 5.1 with a native vmxnet3 VMkenel module for nested ESXi.
Hopefully this has given you a good overview of the new Native Device Driver architecture and in part 2 of the article I will go into a bit more details on where to find these drivers, which vendor supports this new architecture today and how they are loaded.
Olivier Hault says
Is VMware Virtual SAN a Native Device Driver too once installed into your ESXi host ?
William Lam says
VSAN is not installed on an ESXi host, it IS already part of an ESXi 5.5 host as it's built right into the VMkernel itself.
Akhil Bhansali says
Hello William, thank you for sharing the details. Look forward to Part2 of this article!